Let see basic structure in tyre
Tread is the outer part of the tyre which comes into contact with the road surface. It helps prevent sharp objects from penetrating the tyre. It includes a pattern and grooves. It provides traction with ability to grip the road, and giving you confidence when braking. There are many different types of tread, each has different characteristics and applications. Therefore, you should select the appropriate tread pattern in accordance with conditions of use.
Shoulder is the thick rubber which helps prevent damage to the carcass. It is normally designed into grooves to easily distribute heat from inside of the tyres.
Sidewall is the outer part of the tyre which does not touch the road surface when the vehicle is moving. It helps protect the carcass from damage and is the most flexible part of the tyre.
Carcass is the main part of the tyre which helps to preserve the pressure of the tyre so the wheel can support the load of the vehicle as well as withstanding impacts and vibrations from the road.
5. Breaker or Belt
These are the layers between the tread and the carcass. In bias tyres, these layers are called “Breakers” and for radial tyres they are called “Belts”. Both are responsible for strengthening the treads, allowing them to better withstand impacts and also protecting the carcass from damage. Note: Some bias tyres may not have breakers as they are not designed to be used for aggressive driving.
The bead consists of high carbon steel that helps to hold together two sides of the carcass so that the bead can be strained and stick closely to the tread when in use. For vehicles with tubeless tyres, the bead is an important part to prevent air leakage. For tyres consisting of bead wire on one side, the bead is also an important part to prevent air leakage.